Friday, June 23, 2017

Lion (A Long Way Home) – Movie vs Book


"Lion" is an Australian movie based on a true story. The author of the original book Saroo Brierley is an Indian young man who was adopted by an Australian couple after he lost contact with his family at the age of five. After 20 years, he decides to come back to his home country and look for his family.

When I first saw the trailer of "Lion", it was hard, shocking, and heartbreaking. And since the movie wasn’t yet released on DVD, I decided to read the original book "A Long Way Home", and thank God I did. The story was really inspirational and profoundly emotional. The long journey followed by the author in search of his origins and his past was a real lesson of patience, perseverance, hope and love. The book encouraged me more to watch the movie, which I did in February 2017.

Characters

Main Characters

Saroo: The author and protagonist
Kamla (Fatima): Saroo’s mother
Guddu and Kallo: Saroo’s older brothers
Shekila: Saroo’s little sister
Sue Brierely: Saroo’s adoptive mother
John Brierley: Saroo’s adoptive father
Mrs. Saroj Sood: A woman working in the Indian Society for Sponsorship and Adoption (ISSA)
Lisa: Saroo’s girl friend
A teenager: who helped Saroo when he was living in Calcutta streets.
An old man: who saved Saroo twice from drowning.

Secondary Characters

Mantosh: Saroo’s adoptive brother
Asra: Saroo’s friend from the orphanage
Saroo’s father.
Amreen: Saroo’s Indian friend from college
Saleen and Jacob: The Brierley’s neighbors
Cheryl: An interpreter
Julie and Joseph: Sue’s parents
Mary and Christine: Sue’s sisters


Summary

In his memoir, Saroo Brierley tells readers about his life story between his home country India and his adoptive country Australia. Saroo was born in India in a poor family. He had two older brothers and one little sister. When he was very little, his father got married a second time and left them, so his mother raised him and his brothers by herself. To feed her children, she endured carrying heavy rocks and stones on her head for an insignificant salary. Guddu and Kallo, Saroo’s brothers, felt also responsible for their family and did everything to bring food; begging, asking for leftovers, stealing, and working in marginal jobs.



One day, when Saroo was only five years old, he insisted on accompanying his brother Guddu to look for food, but when it was night, Saroo felt too tired that he fell asleep. His brother tried to wake him up, but in vain, so he left him in a train station and told him to wait for him. When Saroo woke up, he looked everywhere for his brother and didn’t find him, so he got into a carriage and felt asleep again. When he awoke, it was broad daylight and the train was already moving. After a journey that seemed to be an eternity, the train arrived to its final destination, Calcutta, one of the most dangerous cities in the world, a megacity known for its over-population, pollution and poverty.

This day was the beginning of a long nightmare. Finding himself alone in this scary city, Saroo had to use his survival skills to find food, to protect himself from dangers, to look every day for a safe place to sleep. He tried repeatedly to come back home, but he didn’t manage to do so with his little experience. So, he decided to accept his new reality and to live on his own. After several months spent in the Streets of Calcutta, fighting hunger, kidnapping, abuse and death, Saroo was moved to a juvenile detention center, and then to an orphanage, which gave him the chance to be adopted by an Australian couple, the Brierley’s.

Twenty years later, Saroo’d never forgotten his home country and his family, but once at college, he met new Indian friends who awakened in him memories from his childhood, and made him remember his mother and brothers whom he’d missed very much. When he knew about new software called Google Earth that could view the whole world from above and search for place-names, he decided to search home based only on Google Earth and his memory of child. The author described in this book the difficult moments he lived during his long search and expressed his feelings, his emotions and his thoughts during this tough period.


Review

Early maturity

While some parents are spending their time on learning how to feed their children in a healthy way, how to choose their clothes, how to provide them useful activities and fun games, and what schools are the best for their education, a large number of children around the world are struggling to find something to eat, something to wear, and a place where to sleep safely. These children who are forced to live on their own most of the time develop more skills than other children. Saroo for example had a strong personality and a fighting spirit that enabled him to face hard tests. His remarkable intuition and prudence helped him avoid dangerous situations. His autonomy and his sense of responsibility made him find food and survive hunger. But what really impressed me was his very strong memory; I was astonished by his capacity of remembering, after twenty years, very small details from his childhood, such as some events when he was three years old, the names and appearances of some places in his hometown, the way home from the train station, and even the smell of some meals prepared by his mother.

The World’s dark side

Living under grinding poverty and then in the Streets of a megacity was a hellish experience for Saroo, but thanks to Allah then to his survival skills and intuition, he could go through all the challenges without being damaged. However, Saroo’s story sheds light on a large number of children all around the world who suffer from the horrors of poverty and violence or live under war. This story reminds us of all those children who are obliged to live in the Streets, who are sexually abused, forced to work or to beg, who are exploited by criminal gangs or even violently killed.

Missing Home

This book is about that human need of belonging to something, a country, a religion, a nation. Even if we live in good conditions, even if we are surrounded by people who love us and take care of us, we still feel an inner need to know our origins and to link our present with our past. In Saroo’s case, this need was even stronger because first he loved his family of origin very much and second because he was forced to live away from them; his breaking-up with them wasn’t planned, it was abrupt, unexpected and tough. That’s why, he always missed Home and repeatedly imagined his mother and his brother Guddu suffering because of him and waiting for him to come back. He needed to see his family again and explain to them what happened to him so that he can go on with his life. Finding Home wasn’t thus a luxury, it was a necessity.



Lessons

This memoir is truly inspirational and teaches us a number of lessons:
Love: Money is not everything, the bonds between Saroo and his family, were unbreakable thanks to the love, protection, and sacrifice of his mother and brothers.
Hope/Optimism: Since he was a child, Saroo has been optimistic; he could have been depressed because of all the horrors he’d seen, but instead, he continued to hope and dreamed always of a better future. Even in his search process, he was quasi-sure he would achieve his objective and find his family.
Perseverance/Patience: Saroo’s journey to find Home was a true lesson of perseverance. With all the possibilities of keywords he had to try and the roads and connections he had to verify everyday stuck to his laptop, he couldn’t give up. Deep inside he knew it was a question of time; he just had to keep trying even if it would take the rest of his life.
Discretion: When Saroo started his search, he decided to keep his objective for himself and not to tell all people, except the ones that can help him achieving it. Maybe he just didn’t want his adoptive parents to worry about him or be disappointed in case the search isn’t fruitful. But personally, I think discretion is a good attitude for everyone trying to achieve an objective. Based on my own experience, I noticed that when you keep a dream for yourself, your motivation remains strong, but once you reveal it to someone, the motivation decreases and you lose half the energy you had before. I don’t know what the secret is, but I know that even the Prophet “PBUH” incited us to be discrete in our projects, so there is surely a good reason behind.
Technology: Some aspects of technology could be very harmful to people (e.g. spying, hacking…), but it could also be of a great interest if used correctly and for the good of humanity. Without technology, Saroo would never have met his family again, but fortunately he did, and his experience inspired many people to use new technologies to find their families or to pursue other dreams.

Comparison between the book and the movie

The main story of the book is maintained in the movie, but some details concerning events, places and characters were changed.

In the book
In the movie
The author focuses a lot on his life in India before he gets lost.
The period before he gets lost wasn’t given a great interest.
In Calcutta, a man pretended to help Saroo while he was intending to sell him to a child abuser.
This character is played by a woman.
Saroo has two brothers, Guddu and Kallo
Kallo is not mentioned.
The author describes in details his new life since he arrived to Australia till he started looking for his Indian family.
The movie doesn’t focus a lot on this period.
After Saroo gets lost, his family converts to Islam.
This detail is not mentioned.
The author focused on two key words in his search: Ginestlay and Berampur.
The second word is not mentioned even if it’s an important detail.
A whole chapter in the book is dedicated to Sue’s life story.
This story is ignored.
Saroo’s girlfriend has a secondary role
We focus more on Saroo’s relationship with his girl friend


Evaluation

Personally, I think both the book and the movie were good, but the book touched me much more because it contains more details.



The Book: 4/5

1. "A Long way home" isn’t a literary book, it’s a personal experience written in simple words and easy language. However, its style is still beautiful because it’s sincere, deep and realistic. Maybe the only thing I didn’t like about the writing is that the author used basically narration, I think it would have been more interesting if he had used dialogue in some scenes.

2. The author describes all the periods of his story with the same sense of details. He let us feel all what he had gone through; he made us smile when he is safe or happy, cry when he is sad, lonely and lost, panic when he is scared or in danger, he made us live every moment with him and let us unconsciously pray for him to survive when he was a child and to find home when he was grown-up.

3. The author in the book devoted great attention to the process of finding Home. He explained all the search details, the means he used, people he asked for help, the keywords he considered, all the possibilities he tried. All these details made us share with the author his moments of joy and sadness, hope and desperation, motivation and exhaustion.

The Movie: 3/5

1. The movie was in general good, the actors did great job, the music was beautiful and the original story was broadly respected.

2. Many important details from the book were ignored in the movie, especially the period before the author gets lost. This period is crucial to the story because without it, we can’t understand the harsh conditions where Saroo’s family was living, how they suffered under grinding poverty, how they spent days and days without food and how they had to learn to survive in an early age, but most importantly, how much they loved each other and remained united and cohesive despite their challenging life.

3. The search journey was also given less attention compared to the book, which didn’t help understand and feel all the difficulties encountered by the author during his search.


A Tribute to two people

I couldn’t finish the article just like that without paying tribute to two characters in Saroo’s life for whom I have great respect, the Brierley’s. The first thing that comes to our minds when we know a couple adopted a little child is that they can’t have babies. It’s something normal and usual. But the Brierley’s were able to have children themselves, and yet they choose adoption. They thought there are already enough children in the world who need love and care, so they decided to adopt children from poor countries and to give them a caring family and a better-life. On top of that, they didn’t specify any preferences of the adopted child, neither age nor sex, they just wanted to offer help to whoever needed it. For them, even if the adoption of one child could be a drop in the ocean, it could at least make a big difference for this child.

Personally, I’ve never heard before of a young married couple who deprive themselves of having children of their own and choose adoption instead unless they have health issues or psychological problems. Especially if we know that the procedure for formal adoption is very complicated; interviews, document preparations, police checks, etc. Moreover, bringing a child from a completely different background and with probably a painful past, helping him adapt to his new life and taking the risk to endure his bad character and deal with his mental and physical issues, all this requires patience, a huge effort and an exceptional courage.

Amal


Wednesday, May 31, 2017

Room - Movie vs Book

 

When I first saw the movie trailer, it showed a young woman and a long-hair child living in a small room. I couldn’t understand who they are and why they are living there. So even if it stimulated my curiosity, I thought it would be a boring movie, but I decided to watch it anyway.  At my surprise, I found the movie very interesting. Although the story is simple and contains few characters and events, it’s very deep and full of emotions and describes the relationship mother-son in a wonderful and unprecedented way. That’s why, I decided to read the original book to live the experience from the author perspective and understand more what she wants to express.

Summary
The book tells the story of a young woman and her son enclosed in a room without windows. The only thing they can see of the outside is the sky through a small skylight in the ceiling. The story is narrated by the little boy who is five years old, and it’s divided into two main parts. The first part describes in details their life inside the room, the environment where they live, their routine, their habits, their feelings and their relationship. The second part focuses on their life outside the room, how they interact with people, how they adapt with the new world and how they deal with the new challenges.

Main Characters
Jack: A 5-year old boy
Ma: Jack's mother.
Old Nick: The kidnapper
Grandpa: Ma’s father
Grandma: Ma’s mother
Leo (Steppa): Ma’s step father
Uncle Paul: Ma’s brother
Deana: Paul’s wife
Bronwyn: Paul’s daughter, Jack’s cousin
Dr. Clay, Dr. Kendrick: Doctors working at the hospital
Noreen: The nurse
Mr. Morris: The lawyer

Review
Environment
In this book, the space seems to get wider and time becomes eternity in that small room. For Jack, Room is not like any other room, it’s a big planet where everything has a name, a life, a meaning, a role and a place. He considers Room as Home and he is attached to everything in it. I'm really impressed of the capacity of the author to create a story for every little thing in that room.

Relationship Mother-son
The relationship between the little boy and his mother is unique. It seems like a tale from an imaginary world, but the feelings inside are very deep and realistic. When I started reading the book, I felt a little bored at the beginning, but once I got deeper in the story, I became attached to the two characters; I loved their relationship, their complicity, and their attachment to each other. And although I sympathized with their situation, but I liked the way they live and feel. Especially in the first part, it was hard for me to choose between reading fast to know how they will get out of Room, and reading slowly to enjoy every moment between these two people.
This book taught me a lot about education and changed my perception of things. It made me realize that children can be happy with little and simple things, they don’t always need new clothes, new games, new activities, what they really need is love, care and trust. These things make them hope, fight and survive.
Our children need us to play with them, to sing with them, to create games and activities together based on simple things, and sometimes they just need to sit in our laps or to lie next to each other and stare at the ceiling. They need to feel loved and safe; they just want to be with us.


Emotions
The story is heartbreakingly beautiful and sweet, especially because it’s told from the perspective of a little boy. Although the way he describes things is naïve, simple and innocent, but it’s still logic and deeply emotional. Jack is like any other child, he is sometimes wise, sometimes annoying, but what’s special about him is the way he understands his mother, the way he trusts her and gives her excuses, the way he deals with her moments of depression and the way he respects sometimes her need for privacy even in this small room.

Another thing I really liked about this book is that the author didn’t choose to make Ma a heroic character. On the contrary, she considered her as a normal mother trying to protect her child, she is not perfect, she makes mistakes, she feels tired and depressed sometimes; she is human after all.

Below some extracts that express these points.
"Ma who lies but doesn't lie, she’s not mean but sometimes she does mean things."
"I don’t have a bath on my own, I just get dressed. There’s hours and hours, hundreds of them. Ma gets up to pee but no talking, with her face all blank. I already put a glass of water beside Bed but she just gets back under Duvet. I hate when she’s Gone, but I like that I get to watch TV all day. I put it on really quiet at first and make it a bit louder at a time. Too much TV might turn me into a zombie but Ma’s like a zombie today and she’s not watching even."
"I tell all the things it’s OK because Ma will be back tomorrow. I read the five books all myself only just bits of Alice. Mostly I just sit. I don’t do Scream because of disturbing Ma. I think it’s probably OK to skip one day."
"Yeah, but I thought he was going to punish us too." I try to imagine. "Like if there were two Rooms, if he put me in one and you in the other one." "Jack, you’re wonderful." "Why I’m wonderful?" "I don’t know," says Ma, "that’s just the way you popped out."

Values
The book focused a lot on the volatility of values. During the Room period, Ma did her best to teach her son good values; she forbade him to watch more than a show on TV, she made him brush his teeth after each meal, she ate the rest of his meals because otherwise it would be a waste, she told him not to lie, she made him go to bed early, etc. But once they are outside the Room, she’s changed completely. Instead of maintaining these values and habits, she started ignoring them and lost interest in applying them, even when Jack reminded her, which makes the latter very confused.
This shows how we, humans, can sometimes easily change our values depending on situations and constraints. This attitude if taken lightly could have a very harmful effect on our children’s perception of morals.

Room vs Outside
When Ma was inside Room, she was longing for freedom, for coming back to her home, her family and her old life, and she was sure she would be happy again if she escapes. As for Jack, he already felt free based on his own perception, and satisfied with the little things he has in Room. He never lived outside, so doesn’t belong to it and doesn’t feel a need to leave Room, he even felt frustrated because Ma insisted to escape.


When they come out, both had difficulties to adapt to the new world, but it seemed as if Jack was more able to do that. Even shocked with the large amount of new information he has to deal with, he easily got used to it, he became ready to learn and discover new things, and he was even trying to enjoy the new world. Ma, on the contrary, was the one who struggled to recover, she couldn’t handle all the changes that had happened in her world, and couldn’t face the new challenges, she felt sadder than Room even if she wouldn’t want to come back to it.
"Ma sings me songs but there’s no more of them anymore. She smashed my head on the table in Room Number Seven. She took the bad medicine, I think she was too tired to play anymore, she was in a hurry to get to Heaven so she didn’t wait, why she didn’t wait for me? "
"When I was four I thought everything in TV was just TV, then I was five and Ma unlied about lots of it being pictures of real and Outside being totally real. Now I’m in Outside but it turns out lots of it isn’t real at all."
"In Room me and Ma had time for everything. I guess the time gets spread very thin like butter over all the world, the roads and houses and playgrounds and stores, so there’s only a little smear of time on each place, then everyone has to hurry on to the next bit.Also everywhere I’m looking at kids, adults mostly don’t seem to like them, not even the parents do. They call the kids gorgeous and so cute, they make the kids do the thing all over again so they can take a photo, but they don’t want to actually play with them, they’d rather drink coffee talking to other adults. Sometimes there’s a small kid crying and the Ma of it doesn’t even hear."

Comparison between the book and the movie
Like any movie inspired from a book, there are many differences between « Room » the movie and « Room » the book. Some of these differences are presented in the table below.
In the book
In the movie
Jack starts asking questions about people in the TV, and "Ma" was obliged to explain to him that what the TV shows is real and exists outside the Room.
When Jack is five, "Ma" decides to tell him about the world outside the Room.
Jack’s curiosity and endless questions remind "Ma" of her old life and give her hope to come back to it.
"Ma" has always been thinking about escaping, she has just been waiting for her child to grow up so that he can help her escape.
The evasion plan was inspired from a discussion with Jack.
The evasion plan was the idea of "Ma".
"Ma" has a brother and his brother is married and has a daughter
"Ma" doesn’t have brothers
"Ma" and Jack stay at the hospital a long period. Most events happen there.
"Ma" and Jack don’t stay a long time at the hospital. Most events happen in Grandma’s house.
Jack decides to cut his hair suddenly.
Jack decides to cut his hair and sent it to his mother at the hospital to help her overcome her illness.
"Ma" and Jack decide to have their own house.
"Ma" and Jack stay in Grandma’s house.
"Ma" still breastfeeds Jack at the age of 5.
Breastfeeding is barely mentioned.


Evaluation
Despite the differences between the book and the movie, I give them both the same rating 4/5 even if the reason for each is not the same.
When I read reviews about the book in goodreads.com, many people didn’t like it, first because it’s narrated by a 5-year old boy and second because the whole first part was inside the Room, which they considered simplistic and boring at the same time. Personally, even if I found the way of simplifying things, as perceived by Jack, too exaggerated sometimes, but most of times, it was funny, emotional and realistic. Moreover, I think the author is a genius because she could create a whole world in a tiny room based only on two characters and few objects, it demands wide imagination, a remarkable sense of detail and high sensitivity. The second part outside the room was less successful for me because it breaks the spell of the first part, it describes situations from normal life, situations that every little child actually faces.
In the movie, the pace of events was fast, especially in the first part, which didn’t give the opportunity to understand the deep relationship mother-son and the transition between Room and Outside. However, some modifications decided by the author were good to the movie, such as the scene where Jack cut his hair and sent it to his mother to give her strength, and the fact not to focus on breastfeeding, because otherwise it would have been somehow shocking.


Amal

Thursday, April 27, 2017

Le monde de Sophie – Partie 9



IX. Le Romantisme

La période romantique a commencé en Allemagne à la fin du xvIIIe siècle et a continué jusqu'au milieu du xixe siècle comme réaction du sentiment contre la raison. Les nouveaux mots d'ordre étaient « sentiment », « imagination », « expérience » et « nostalgie ». De nombreux romantiques se considéraient comme des descendants de Kant qui a différencié entre « la chose en soi » et la « la chose pour moi ». Ainsi, chacun pouvait redéfinir à sa guise son rapport au monde et donner sa propre interprétation du réel.

L’Art

L’un des traits communs entre la Renaissance et le Romantisme est la place privilégiée accordée à l’art comme moyen de connaissance. Avant les romantiques, Kant s'était interrogé sur l'origine du ravissement de l’homme face à quelque chose de très beau comme par exemple une œuvre d'art. Selon lui, la contemplation esthétique approche l’homme de l'expérience de la « chose en soi » parce que, ainsi, il déborde du strict cadre de la raison. Pour Kant, l'artiste aussi exerce librement, sa faculté de connaissance et joue avec elle.

Pour les romantiques, seul l'art permet de cerner « l'indicible ». Ainsi, l'artiste peut faire passer des messages que les philosophes sont incapables d'exprimer. Une des idées novatrices de ce mouvement était le concept de «génie artistique» qui est irrationnel, subjectif, créatif, animé par l’inspiration divine, l’intuition et les passions. Et ce, contrairement aux artistes des Lumières qui étaient disciplinés par la raison, les codes et les conventions. Tout cela a donné naissance à une nouvelle conception de l'art, qui exige une liberté absolue de création et d'imagination individuelle et qui refusait les contraintes imposées par les règles et les traditions. Beethoven est un exemple des artistes romantiques. Sa musique traduit les émotions et les désirs d'un être humain. Il s'oppose ainsi aux grands maîtres de la musique baroque comme Bach et Haendel, qui composaient en l'honneur de Dieu et d'après des règles souvent assez strictes.

Nostalgie, amour impossible et oisiveté

Les romantiques voulaient retrouver la trace de cultures plus lointaines, comme la culture et la mystique orientales. Ils se sentaient attirés par la nuit, les lueurs crépusculaires, les ruines et le surnaturel...

Chez les romantiques, on trouve aussi l'amour impossible. Par exemple, dans le roman « les Souffrances du jeune Werther » de Goethe publié en 1774, le jeune Werther qui ne peut obtenir celle qu'il aime se suicide à la fin. A l’époque du romantisme, le suicide était à la mode.

Les romantiques aussi considéraient l’oisiveté comme l'idéal du génie et la paresse comme la vertu du romantique. Ils pensaient qu’il fallait faire toutes sortes d'expériences et rêver pour s'échapper du monde réel. Pour eux, la routine, c'était bien assez bon pour les petit-bourgeois.

L’âme du monde ou l’esprit du monde

Le romantisme se caractérisait par la nostalgie d'une nature sauvage et mystique. Ce mouvement considérait la nature comme un tout. Ainsi pour les romantiques, la philosophie, les sciences expérimentales et la littérature faisaient partie d'un grand tout.

Contrairement à Descartes et Hume qui avaient distingué entre le moi du sujet et l'« étendue » de la réalité,  ainsi que Kant qui a séparé entre le « moi connaissant » et la nature « en soi ».  Les romantiques s'inscrivaient dans la tradition de Spinoza, de Plotin et des philosophes de la Renaissance comme Jacob Böhme et Giordano Bruno qui étaient panthéistes et ont affirmé avoir fait l'expérience d'un « moi » divin au sein de la nature. Dans ce sens, la nature était conçue par les romantiques comme un organisme vivant. Ils utilisaient l'expression l'« âme du monde » ou l'« esprit du monde » :
- Le premier grand philosophe romantique est Friedrich Wilhelm Schelling. Il a vécu de 1775 à 1854 et a affirmé que la nature n'était selon lui que l'expression d'un absolu ou de l'« esprit du monde ». Schelling disait : « La nature est l'esprit visible, l'esprit la nature invisible». Pour lui, la nature et la conscience de l'homme sont simplement deux formes d'expression de la même chose. On peut donc chercher l'« esprit du monde » aussi bien dans la nature qu'en soi-même.
- Novalis qui était un des génies romantiques, a déclaré que « le chemin mystérieux va vers l'intérieur ». Il entendait par là que l'homme porte tout l'univers en lui et que c'est en plongeant à l'intérieur de soi-même que l'homme peut ressentir le mystère du monde.
- Le philosophe allemand Johann Gottlieb Fichte qui a vécu de 1744 à 1803, expliquait que la nature n'est que l'émanation d'une instance supérieure qui prend inconsciemment cette forme.

Le romantisme et l’histoire

Selon Johann Gottfried Herder, le cours de l'histoire n’était que le résultat d'un processus visant à un but bien défini. Il avait une conception « dynamique » contrairement à la conception « statique » des philosophes des Lumières. Herder pensait que chaque peuple à une époque donnée avait sa spécificité, ce qu'il appelle l'« âme du peuple ». Toute la question est de connaitre notre capacité de nous transposer dans ces différentes cultures. Le romantisme a contribué ainsi à renforcer l'identité culturelle de chaque nation.

Les formes du romantisme

On distingue deux formes de romantisme :
1. Le romantisme universel et qui fait référence à la conception de la nature, à l'âme du monde et au génie artistique et qui s’est développé surtout à Iéna en Allemagne, vers 1800.
2. Le romantisme national qui a surgi des années plus tard à Heidelberg. Les romantiques nationaux s'intéressaient surtout à l'histoire, à la langue du « peuple », c'est-à-dire à tout ce qui relevait de la culture « populaire ». Car le peuple aussi était considéré comme un organisme devant développer ses possibilités internes, tout comme la nature ou l'histoire.
Ce qui relie ces deux aspects du romantisme :
- La notion d'organisme : Tout, que ce soit une plante, le peuple, un poème, la langue ou la nature tout entière, était considéré comme un organisme vivant.
- L'esprit du monde : cette notion était aussi présente dans la culture populaire que dans la nature et l'art. On a redécouvert les anciens mythes et les poèmes païens afin de rapprocher la littérature populaire de la littérature dite savante. Par exemple, À Heidelberg, on avait rassemblé des airs et des contes populaires comme les Contes des frères Grimm qui rassemblent les histoires de Blanche-Neige, le Petit Chaperon rouge, Cendrillon, Hänsel et Gretel... Des compositeurs se mirent à introduire des airs populaires dans leur musique, tentant par ce moyen de rapprocher la musique populaire de la musique dite savante c'est-à-dire composée selon des règles bien précises.


Rachida KHTIRA

Software Engineer at the Moroccan Ministry of Finance.
Interests: Reading, travel and social activities.